Globalisation has taken us to a new world where we are more connected than ever, which has brought with it many positives in terms of societal improvement, safety and economic development. Yet, distinct, separate cultures remain, all of which have their own set of practices and etiquette.
When doing business in foreign countries, particularly in a country as distinct as Korea, it’s essential to familiarise yourself with the local customs and manners so that you can act respectably, forge successful partnerships and avoid misunderstandings. For Australian businesses eyeing opportunities in this country, comprehending the intricacies of Korean business culture can make all the difference. This article outlines some of the cultural nuances that accountants in Korea should be aware of when networking and negotiating there.
Building rapport: The foundation of business in Korea
Relationships lie at the heart of business dealings in Korea. Korean culture places a strong emphasis on ‘guanxi’, a concept similar to the Chinese concept of the same name, which represents a network of relationships and connections.
In Korea, building and nurturing these relationships is key to a successful business partnership. Unlike Western business cultures, where deals can be transactional and impersonal, in Korea, it’s essential to invest time in getting to know your partners.
One of the primary ways to build rapport is through face-to-face meetings. The initial meetings are often focused on getting to know each other personally, rather than diving straight into business matters. These meetings typically involve the exchange of business cards, known as “명함” (myeongham), with both hands and a slight bow. Exchanging business cards is a common practice, and you should treat the card with respect by examining it and placing it carefully in a cardholder. Doing so demonstrates your interest and respect for your Korean colleague.
Appropriate conduct in Korean business settings
Respect and hierarchy are still highly valued in Korean business culture. Australians should be aware that it is customary to address individuals with honorific titles and surnames, such as “Mr.” or “Ms.,” followed by their surname. It’s generally advisable to wait for your Korean counterparts to invite you to use their first names, as using first names too early in a relationship can be considered presumptuous.
When it comes to meetings, punctuality is very important. Arriving late for a business meeting is seen as disrespectful and can harm your reputation. It’s advisable to arrive a few minutes early to demonstrate your commitment and respect for the meeting.
The giving and receiving of gifts is another significant aspect of Korean business etiquette. It’s a common practice in the country used as a gesture to build and maintain relationships. When presenting a gift, it should be wrapped neatly and it’s customary to present it with both hands and a slight bow towards the recipient. Interestingly, these presents are often given in sets of two, as odd numbers are typically associated with funerals and considered unlucky.
However, it’s essential to be mindful of the type and value of the gift. Lavish or extravagant gifts may be seen as an attempt to influence the recipient and can create uncomfortable situations. Instead, consider thoughtful, culturally appropriate gifts, such as high-quality stationery or items from your home country; this is a mark of enthusiasm to share your culture.
Avoiding cultural misunderstandings
While your companions will be aware that you are from a different culture and will likely make exceptions because of this, misunderstandings can still occur easily.
For Australians doing business in Korea, avoiding these is vital for maintaining positive relationships and ultimately securing a good result for your company. Some common pitfalls to avoid are:
Gestures and body language:
Non-verbal communication can be a significant source of misunderstandings. Some common gestures that are acceptable in Australia may carry different meanings in Korea. For instance, the “thumbs-up” gesture, which is a positive sign in Australia, is considered offensive in Korea. Likewise, pointing with one’s finger is considered impolite, so it’s better to use an open hand to indicate directions or objects.
Directness vs. indirectness:
Australians are often known for their straightforward communication style, but in Korea, a more subtle approach is preferred. Koreans tend to avoid confrontation and may use non-verbal cues and indirect language to convey their opinions so you’ll need to read between the lines and listen carefully to what is not being said.
Nowadays, Australian businesses are generally more egalitarian in structure, with a flat hierarchy. In contrast, Korean businesses often have a strong hierarchical structure where seniority is highly respected. Being aware of this hierarchy and showing respect to those in higher positions is essential.
Business meetings in Korea often involve meals, and dining etiquette varies from country to country. In Korea, you should not start eating until the most senior person at the table begins, and do not pour your own drink; wait for someone else to do it for you. Additionally, it’s essential to engage in polite small talk during the meal, show appreciation for the food and appear to enjoy the company.
In conclusion, doing business in Korea requires a deep appreciation of the cultural nuances and etiquettes that are unique to this East Asian nation. Building strong relationships, respecting hierarchy, and understanding the intricacies of Korean business culture are the cornerstones of success for businesspeople and accountants in Korea.
By approaching interactions in Korea with cultural sensitivity and an open mind, Australian businesses can navigate the complexities of the Korean market and foster successful partnerships, ensuring that cultural differences do not become barriers to success.